Every quotation should be introduced and integrated into an essay in a way that makes clear the relationship between the quotation and your own argument. There are four ways to integrate a spot quotation. In general, periods and commas are placed inside the quotation marks see the examples above.
Unless they are part of the quoted material, colons, semicolons, question marks, exclamation marks, and dashes are placed outside the quotation marks. Use single quotation marks to mark off a quotation within a quotation. Then you copy the quotation, beginning on a new line and indenting the entire quotation 10 spaces or 2. If your introductory statement is not a complete sentence, use a comma or no punctuation, whichever is appropriate.
The passage by Diane Ackerman contains examples of both ways to introduce block quotations. Can you explain why Ackerman used no punctuation to introduce the first block quotation and a colon to introduce the second one?
How to Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote from Sources As you identify and evaluate research sources, you must make accurate notes of information you think might be useful in your essay. Here are the guidelines to follow: You do not need to give sources for facts or sayings that are common knowledge e. Any words taken directly from a source must be marked as a quotation, and you must give full information about the source. Facts, opinions, and ideas that you found on the Internet, in a book or article, or in any other source must be acknowledged even if you express the information in your own words.
Facts, opinions, and ideas that you remember reading or hearing somewhere cannot be presented as your own. If you cannot find and acknowledge a source, you should not use the information. Note: Google is helpful in tracking down sources of information. Back to top How to Write a Summary The work you summarize can be as short as a paragraph or a poem, or as long as a book. Write the meanings above the words they apply to.
Now read the article or essay again—and again, if necessary. Keep reading it until you have identified the main ideas and formed a mental picture of their arrangement. Highlight the title, subtitle, and headings if there are any.
The title often identifies the subject of the article, and a subtitle usually indicates its focus. If the piece is long, the writer will often divide it into a number of smaller sections, each with its own heading. These headings usually signal key ideas. If there are no headings, pay particular attention to the introduction, where you are likely to find an overview of the subject, together with a statement of the thesis; the topic sentence of each paragraph topic sentences identify key ideas ; and the conclusion, which often summarizes the thesis and points to its significance.
In point form, and in your own words, write out a bare-bones outline of the piece. Your outline should consist of the controlling idea thesis of the article and the key ideas, in the order in which they appear. Do not include any supporting details statistics, specific facts, examples, etc.
Working from your outline, draft your summary. In the first sentence, identify the article or essay you are summarizing by title, enclosed in quotation marks and the author by name, if known. Revise your draft until it is coherent, concise, and makes sense to someone who is unfamiliar with the original work. Format and Documentation will show you how. Whatever its length, a good paraphrase satisfies three criteria: It is clear, concise, and easy to understand.
It communicates the idea s of the original passage. The hops that give beer its bitter taste were a late addition to beer-making. You can quote from two kinds of sources— people you know, or have heard speak, or have interviewed print, electronic, or recorded materials e. Back to top Block and Spot Quotations If the material you are quoting is more than 40 words or four typed lines, it is a long—or block—quotation.
She signals that she is quoting by indenting the entire passage she has borrowed from Bodanis: Committees put a lot of thought into the design of fast foods. As David Bodanis points out with such good humour in The Secret House , potato chips are an example of total destruction foods. If the omission comes at the end of your sentence, add a fourth dot as the period. Back to top How to Integrate Quotations into Your Writing When you decide to quote source material, you should introduce it so that it will blend as seamlessly as possible into your writing.
Different verbs suggest different attitudes toward the quoted material.
Choose your introductory verbs carefully, and be sure to use a variety of phrases. If your introductory words form a complete sentence, use a colon : to introduce the quotation. Tips on Using Quotations in Your Writing Use quotations sparingly and for a specific purpose, such as for emphasis or to reinforce an important point. Avoid the temptation to produce a patchwork paper—one that consists of bits and pieces of other people's writing stuck together to look like an original work. Far from impressing your readers, overuse of quotations will give them the impression you have nothing of your own to say.
Be sure every quotation is an accurate reproduction of the original passage. If you need to change or omit words, indicate those changes with square brackets or ellipses, as appropriate. Be sure every quotation is relevant.
No matter how interesting or well worded, a quotation that does not clearly and directly relate to your subject does not belong in your essay. Make clear the link between the quotation and your controlling idea. Example of quoting paraphrasing and summarising paraphrase essay quo View. Essay on man parap View. Please write a summary responce essay to the artic chegg com paraphrasing samples f1e9 4eff View. Pdf paraphrasing in academic writing a case study of vietnamese paraphrase essay example largepr View.
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