Pupils in kinder garden and 1 st grade have been excepted from this. The data contain information about, whether the absenteeism was legal as a consequence of illness or else or illegal. From each five days of absenteeism three are used as legal absenteeism because of illness, one is used as legal absenteeism because of other reasons while one day — in average among all the pupils — is used as illegal absenteeism. High school absenteeism is mostly seen among children, who have a low well-being and come from homes with a poor cooperation with school.
These two were the most dominating possible reasons out of many, which were investigated. The children often have divorced parents, are pupils in the lower secondary school, have a lower academic level, attend more often special classes, have a lower well-being and have more frequently contact to the Educational Psychological Counselling in the municipality. Likewise, overweight children have a higher propensity to school absenteeism.
On the basis of the school absenteeism project a course of therapy treatment for children with alarmingly high school absenteeism has been developed. Time period: — The size of the work unit is very important in this regard: as it increases, so too does absenteeism, and vice versa Kaman, , p. Measuring the level of absenteeism among its employees enables an organisation to determine the extent and nature of the problem to take appropriate corrective action.
Two commonly used methods for measuring absenteeism are based on total work time lost due to absenteeism and the frequency of absence, respectively. The time lost method expresses the percentage of contracted working time available in days or hours that has been lost due to absence Nel et al. The absence frequency approach for reporting absence data expresses the average number of absence events per employee as a percentage.
It measures the spread of absence across employees and provides a better indicator of short-term absence than the time lost method. A higher absence incident rate indicates that absences are of shorter duration and, therefore, more disruptive to the organisation, as it is easier and less costly to make contingency plans when it is known that an employee will be absent for a longer period than it is to deal with short unexpected absences.
The Confederation of British Industry CBI reports that absenteeism among manual workers results in delayed production, lower quality levels, disruption of workflow, low morale and general dissatisfaction, all of which lead to lower productivity. Goodman and Atkin , also found that replacing an absent worker with a less skilled worker, either from within the organisation or outside, leads to a decline in productivity, and emphasise disciplinary action and an increase in workplace accidents among other negative impacts.
However, Robbins and Judge , p.
Goodman and Atkin , p. In particular, respondents frequently reported that co-workers who were required to step in for their absent colleagues experienced increased pressure and stress.
Moreover, workers who have been absent from work will return to an increased workload, which in turn leads to increased work pressure, making them susceptible to further absence from work McHugh Studies about the impact of absenteeism in school environments report similar findings.
According to Arnell and Brown , p. Considering the above information, it is evident that absenteeism seriously affects the individual and his or her colleagues, management, the organisation as a whole and even the community at large. The excessive non-attendance or habitual late-coming of an employee may speak volumes about both the employee involved and the organisation itself and always bears further investigation.
While employees may have legitimate reasons for being absent from work, such as illness or personal problems, the organisation may also tacitly encourage this behaviour through its actions or in action. People want more control over their work life and accord more meaning to their non-work life. Balancing work and family life must, therefore, be an important management issue.
Organisations may devise different methodologies to achieve this, for example, flexitime, telecommuting, providing childcare centres within the organisation or enabling parents to work from home. Working from home is however not practicable for teachers, as they need to interact with learners.
The education policy in Botswana allows for twelve weeks of maternity leave. However, paternity leave is not recognised in Botswana education system as well as labour laws. The researchers further report that inadequate time-planning and preparation and a heavy teaching load also reduce the satisfaction that educators may otherwise glean from their profession. Over time, the cumulative effect of these stressors and the negative emotions they engender may lead teachers to absent themselves in order to recuperate and restore their physical and mental energy levels Kyriacou This is not only highly relevant to teachers but is also true of school administrators and policymakers.
It is therefore conceptualised and associated with prolonged work-related stress, within employees who have direct contact with other people from different portfolios or other. It may also result from ongoing work overload or work prolonged hours without rest. Organisations that are understaffed may have a higher incidence of burnout among employees.
It may take a medical expert to spot the early symptoms of alcoholism, such as habitual tardiness, as they are often related to other problems, such as absenteeism.
Employees who habitually overindulge or are addicted to drugs may experience incapacitating hangovers that prevent them from going to work or might resort to staying away from work in order to avoid having their problem detected, seeking refuge in sick leave. Alcohol or drug addiction is a serious problem and organisations should have a formal written policy on substance abuse in place to properly address it Nel et al.
Unreliable transport, or strikes in the public transport system, may likewise keep employees from work. On April 18, , public servants belonging to the Botswana Federation of Unions, enjoying a base of 90 members, went on strike demanding higher salaries in the first ever militant strike in Botswana since independence. They decided to stay away from work Ramadubu, However, such activities may also serve as a pretence for teachers who are dissatisfied with their core duty to absent themselves from the classroom.
In such cases, absenteeism may be a form of expressing disapproval of management. Such feelings may result in a decision to stay away from work. During the trial, the jury heard of repeated incidents involving fondling, foul language and racial slurs, and the throwing of everything from pens to telephones. Although this may represent an extreme case of workplace abuse, it is not difficult to see that employees may well prefer to absent themselves from work rather than face such treatment. As far as teachers are concerned, the most common form of workplace abuse reported is foul language and the threat of physical violence directed against them by students.
This creates a hostile environment which many teachers will avoid by reneging on their duties in order to protect themselves Burke Organisations should, therefore, do careful introspection in considering whether absenteeism issues within their ranks are perhaps a manifestation of genuinely unhappy employees. Employees who are dissatisfied with their work or work environment display lower commitment and are at a greater risk of leaving the profession Evans Absenteeism is a factor that must be addressed and curbed by management because if not monitored, it will breed unprecedented events such as risks in the organisation.
A careful analysis of factors that lead to employees absconding from work should be counter measured. According to Fraser and Simkins , risk analysis is a tool that can be used to draw a picture of a risk and provide the manager with all necessary information concerning that particular risk.
After acquiring adequate information about the risk, the decision maker can then know what plan of action to take to mitigate the risks. Risk analysis can rely on mathematical computations such as statistics to give clear understanding or just a qualitative study after careful summation is made from other literature concerning a particular risk.
Some disciples such as Decision-making studies can help managers with estimates and projections so that they can be able to take calculated risks Fraser and Simkins Repeated events and tendencies such as absenteeism can become handy in analysing risks that can be proacted upon. Risk analyses operate on the concept of cause analyses, whereby the cause of reaction to a certain phenomenon is studied and curbed, absenteeism is, therefore, such a case.
Employees who perceive their jobs as unrewarding or failing to live up to their expectations will show an increased tendency to absent themselves from the workplace. The nature of the work and the work environment affect job satisfaction hence lead to staying away from work. Enriching jobs that provide employees with a variety of tasks can, therefore, result in greater satisfaction than routine ones which will encourage employees to be present at work.
The type of supervision also affects employees; a coercive boss will tend to demoralise his employees.
As regards absenteeism, the literature indicates that it has disastrous effects on the individual, his fellow employees, the organisation and its clients. Also, it tends to predispose the absent teacher to even more absenteeism to avoid the pressure of the heightened workload that awaits him on his return. However, there are unavoidable reasons such as sicknesses which organisations need to come up with better solutions such as a doctor on call for employees of a particular enterprise. In short, systematic employee absenteeism is often a sign of job dissatisfaction and understanding the root causes, trends and predictors may go a long way towards creating practical solutions for curbing this problem.
In addition to the above study, further quantitative studies are recommended in order to assess the impact of absenteeism in the workplace critically.
International Journal of Scientific and Research P ublications, Volume 7, Issue 9, September 2 ISSN 22 50 - Effects of Absenteeism on Students. Education Week recently came out with an article, "School Absences Translate to Lower Test Scores, Study Says". One of the first comments on the article was.
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