Moreover, quoting the sources accurately and properly helps the writer to avoid plagiarism, which is considered to be a grave violation in the academic world. Moreover, repercussions of plagiarism cases may lead to redoing the course or even more dire consequences such as expulsion from the educational institution. In research paper writing, there are no shortcuts or ready-to-fill templates that can allow one to quickly complete their paper. That is why to write an excellent paper, it is mandatory for one to invest time and efforts.
The most crucial aspect of mastering the research paper writing process is by first learning the different types of styles used in writing research papers. If a student is not totally proficient in the writing styles, it is advisable to consult different useful sources such as books and manuals with citing and referencing information. The APA citation style also deals with the general style in writing, organization of content and preparing the paper for publishing. The major upside of using this citation and formatting style is because it gives a writer a formatting tool which can be used in different types of sources such as manuscripts, maps, charts, government publications, newspapers, and oral interviews.
It is commonly used in the fields of humanities. These two styles are designed for use in the fields of economics and history. Moreover, the Turabian Style of Citation is, essentially, a modification of the Chicago Style adapted for ease of use by the students. The Turabian Style is used in arts, literature, and history fields. Also, there is a style used particularly in the scientific field as well as in social and natural sciences. The Chicago Citation Style includes notes, bibliography, and the author-date citation style.
The CBE citation style is most commonly used in writing of research papers and citing sources in the field of Biology.
Research papers in Biology have to adhere to the requirements of Scientific Format and Style. This style is a specialized guide for citing, referencing, and creating electronic sources. The CGOS addresses the peculiarities of the online publishing practice.
The CGOS style is the best recommendation for students who want to learn the rules of online citation. Read the final draft of his paper. Working with one of the topics you just identified, use the research skills you learned in this chapter to locate three to five potentially useful print or electronic sources of information about the topic. Create a list that includes the following:. In real-life and work-related contexts, people consult a wide range of different information sources every day, without always making conscious judgments about whether the source is reliable and why. Identify one media source of information you use at least once a week—for instance, a website you visit regularly, or a newspaper or magazine to which you subscribe.
Write two paragraphs explaining the following:. Different professional communities develop their own standards about the writing style people in that community use when creating documents to share with others. In some cases, these standards may apply to a very broad group of professionals—for example, researchers in many different social sciences use APA style in academic writing.
MLA style is commonly used in the humanities, including English classes. In other cases, style guidelines are specific to a particular company or organization. Find a document, such as a newsletter or brochure, that was produced by an organization to which you belong. Make sure it is a document you have permission to share. Review the document and answer the following questions:. Previous Chapter. Table of Contents. Next Chapter. Chapter 12 Writing a Research Paper.
Identify when and how to summarize, paraphrase, and directly quote information from research sources. Apply guidelines for citing sources within the body of the paper and the bibliography. Use primary and secondary research to support ideas.
Identify the purposes for which writers use each type of research. Writing Your Introduction There are several approaches to writing an introduction, each of which fulfills the same goals. Introduction Over the past decade, increasing numbers of Americans have jumped on the low-carb bandwagon. Exercise 1 Write the introductory paragraph of your research paper.
Tip Writers often work out of sequence when writing a research paper. Writing Your Conclusion In your introduction, you tell readers where they are headed.
Do not use titles Dr. Let me in! Excessive use of personal nouns [e. That is the reason to publish a exceptional paper, it really is mandatory so that you can invest some time efforts. The paper includes a description of how and why particular evidence was collected and analyzed, and why specific theoretical arguments or concepts were used.
Writing at Work If your job involves writing or reading scientific papers, it helps to understand how professional researchers use the structure described in this section. Using Source Material in Your Paper One of the challenges of writing a research paper is successfully integrating your ideas with material from your sources.
Summary In three recent studies, researchers compared outcomes for obese subjects who followed either a low-carbohydrate diet, a low-fat diet, or a Mediterranean diet and found that subjects following a low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight in the same time Howell, Tip A summary restates ideas in your own words—but for specialized or clinical terms, you may need to use terms that appear in the original source. Exercise 2 On a separate sheet of paper, practice summarizing by writing a one-sentence summary of the same passage that Jorge already summarized.
Source Dieters nearly always get great results soon after they begin following a low-carbohydrate diet, but these results tend to taper off after the first few months, particularly because many dieters find it difficult to follow a low-carbohydrate diet plan consistently. Summary People usually see encouraging outcomes shortly after they go on a low-carbohydrate diet, but their progress slows down after a short while, especially because most discover that it is a challenge to adhere to the diet strictly Heinz, Summary Because it is hard for dieters to stick to a low-carbohydrate eating plan, the initial success of these diets is short-lived Heinz, Exercise 3 On a separate sheet of paper, follow these steps to practice paraphrasing.
Choose an important idea or detail from your notes. Without looking at the original source, restate the idea in your own words. Check your paraphrase against the original text in the source. Make sure both your language and your sentence structure are original.
Revise your paraphrase if necessary. Quoting Sources Directly Most of the time, you will summarize or paraphrase source material instead of quoting directly. When you do choose to quote directly from a source, follow these guidelines: Make sure you have transcribed the original statement accurately. Never use a stand-alone quotation. Always integrate the quoted material into your own sentence. Use ellipses … if you need to omit a word or phrase. Use brackets [ ] if you need to replace a word or phrase. Make sure any omissions or changed words do not alter the meaning of the original text.
Omit or replace words only when absolutely necessary to shorten the text or to make it grammatically correct within your sentence. Remember to include correctly formatted citations that follow the assigned style guide. Documenting Source Material Throughout the writing process, be scrupulous about documenting information taken from sources. The purpose of doing so is twofold: To give credit to other writers or researchers for their ideas To allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired You will cite sources within the body of your paper and at the end of the paper in your bibliography.
Citing Sources in the Body of Your Paper In-text citations Instances in which use of source material is documented in the body text of the research paper. Summary Leibowitz found that low-carbohydrate diets often helped subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels. Summary Low-carbohydrate diets often help subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels Leibowitz, Creating a List of References Each of the sources you cite in the body text will appear in a references list A list of sources used in a research paper that provides detailed bibliographical information.
Using Primary and Secondary Research As you write your draft, be mindful of how you are using primary and secondary source material to support your points. Using Primary Sources Effectively Some types of research papers must use primary sources extensively to achieve their purpose. Here are a few examples: A paper for a literature course analyzing several poems by Emily Dickinson A paper for a political science course comparing televised speeches delivered by two presidential candidates A paper for a communications course discussing gender biases in television commercials A paper for a business administration course that discusses the results of a survey the writer conducted with local businesses to gather information about their work-from-home and flextime policies A paper for an elementary education course that discusses the results of an experiment the writer conducted to compare the effectiveness of two different methods of mathematics instruction For these types of papers, primary research is the main focus.
Using Secondary Sources Effectively For some assignments, it makes sense to rely more on secondary sources than primary sources. To avoid unintentional plagiarism, follow these guidelines: Understand what types of information must be cited.
Understand what constitutes fair use of a source. Keep source materials and notes carefully organized. Follow guidelines for summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting sources. When to Cite Any idea or fact taken from an outside source must be cited, in both the body of your paper and the references list. Fair Use In recent years, issues related to the fair use of sources have been prevalent in popular culture. Summary Low-carbohydrate diets may indeed be superior to other diet plans for short-term weight loss.
Working with Sources Carefully Disorganization and carelessness sometimes lead to plagiarism. Academic Integrity The concepts and strategies discussed in this section of Chapter 12 "Writing a Research Paper" connect to a larger issue—academic integrity. The body of the paper develops the thesis and related points with information from research. Ideas and information taken from outside sources must be cited in the body of the paper and in the references section. Summarizing and paraphrasing are usually most effective for this purpose.