Descartes gives at least two arguments for God's existence. The first one, found in I. Descartes' ontological argument goes as follows: 1 Our idea of God is of a perfect being, 2 it is more perfect to exist than not to exist, 3 therefore, God must exist. The second argument that Descartes gives for this conclusion is far more complex. This argument rests on the distinction between two sorts of reality. Formal reality is the reality that anything has in virtue of existing.
In meditation III, Rene Descartes says that he is certain that imagination and perception do exist since they exist inside his mind as consc. Free Essay: René Descartes' Argument on the Existence of God The problem with René Descartes' argument about the existence of God has to do with his.
It is just regular, garden-variety reality. Formal reality comes in three grades: infinite, finite, and mode. God is the only existing thing with infinite formal reality. Substances all have finite formal reality.
Finally, modes have modal formal reality. An idea, insofar as it is considered as an occurent piece of thought, has modal formal reality since any particular thought, as we will see later, is just a mode of mind.
Ideas, however, also have another kind of reality, unique to them. When considered in their relation to the objects they represent, ideas can be said to have objective reality. The argument originated in the eleventh century with an Augustinian by the name of Saint Anselm An Augustinian is a member of the Roman Catholic Church whose constitutions are based on the teachings of religious life as set forth by Saint Augustine.
The Augustinian order allowed Anselm the latitude within the Church to authentically reexamine the notion of God. Ockham and Pascal. The English monk William of Ockham was one of the greatest thinkers of all time. He was known for his keen sense of logic and his enduring theological ideologies. Going entirely against the philosophy of his time, Ockham put forth his now famous principle of economy—which states the plurality of reasons should not be postulated without necessity.
Or in other words, if all things are equal, the simplest theory tends to be the right one. He claimed it is vain to do with more what can be done with less. The French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal originated option theory with his famous wager regarding the questions of existence and ultimate nature of God.
His argument came during the Renaissance in response to those unwilling to believe in God strictly on faith and authority. Pascal argued that living a simple life which seeks to understand God represents the option premium which then allows for the possibility of salvation should it turn out that God does exist.
He was the father of modern philosophy—ie. Descartes insisted on the primacy of the individual and the analysis of human consciousness.
This starting point for existential philosophy is the Cartesian cogito—ie. Descartes formulated his famous Cartesian Model for constructing arguments which is—Order thoughts from simple to complex—Only accept clear and distinct ideas as true—Divide arguments into as many parts as necessary—Check thoroughly for oversights—And, using reversibility, rehearse, examine and test arguments over and over until they can be grasped with a single act of intuition or faith.
Initially, one faithfully or intuitively senses truth, which is followed up by constructing rational arguments and then intuitively capturing completed arguments. In other words, faith leads us to reason and then reason leads us back to faith. Descartes also formulated the theory of systematic doubt whereby the existentialist says no to any argument no matter how plausible so long as he saw the possibility of doubting the argument.
By the end of the sixteenth century philosophy had ceased to progress—and it was Descartes who started it up again. Descartes sought certainly throughout life. He graduated from law school although he never practiced law. His father was a judge. Descartes slept until noon every day of his life and never worked a day of his life. Descartes was afforded the luxury of being largely self-taught while attending a Jesuit school. In the afternoon he would study mathematics, riding, fencing and flute-playing.
After law school Descartes went on an extended tour of Europe—finally settling in the philosophically liberal Holland. Queen Christina of Sweden was a fan of Descartes—and sent a warship to collect him from Holland with the intention of turning Stockholm into the philosophic centre of the north. At fifty-three he was still rising at noon every day. Divine Simplicity and the Eternal Truths in Descartes.
Descartes on the Passions: Function, Representation, and Motivation. Kremer - Descartes's Meditations: Critical Essays. Vere Chappell ed. Stanley Tweyman ed.
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Sign in to use this feature. Applied ethics. History of Western Philosophy. Normative ethics.