Chapter Crisis of the Later Middle Ages What were the causes of the population decline that began in the early 14th century? Beginning in , the Great Famine brought seven years of starvation and vulnerability for Northern Europe.
Crops and grain were the main food source, therefore, Europeans struggled to find substitutions for food which physically effected them especially in the cold winter months. The Black Death launched at an ailing time for Europe because of the Great Famine which made the plague …show more content…. The remaining workers demanded higher wages however they were quickly denied by the English Parliament.
In the late 14th-century wages started to rise throughout towns and cities leading to wealthier lifestyles throughout Europe.
As workers became more expensive, employers could not afford to hire them, replacing them with the cheap alternative of slaves. As business man realized the high demand for slaves, they heightened the price. The price of land decreased as the amount of land increased because of the numerous deaths during the plague. Describe the psychological effects of the plague. How did people explain this disaster? The Black Death became stronger and towns became weaker with fear that their destiny was death. The public was confused as to were the disease came from and how to cure it leading them to focus on asceticism and serious religious practices.
For example groups of flagellants believed the plague was a punishment from God and in their search for forgiveness they walked through public streets whipping themselves with disdain. People also became skeptical of travelers, pilgrims, and ship merchants for having carried the plague.
Charles IV of France the last son of Philip the. At the top of Italian society was a new breed of rulers, keen to demonstrate their wealth in a way that set them apart. Families such as the Medici of Florence looked to the Ancient Roman and Greek civilisations for inspiration — and so did those artists who relied on their patronage. Renaissance art did not limit itself to simply looking pretty, however. Behind it was a new intellectual discipline: perspective was developed, light and shadow were studied, and the human anatomy was pored over — all in pursuit of a new realism and a desire to capture the beauty of the world as it really was.
If the Renaissance was about rediscovering the intellectual ambition of the Classical civilisations, it was also about pushing the boundaries of what we know — and what we could achieve. Even as the artists were creating a bold new realism, scientists were engaged in a revolution of their own. Advances in chemistry led to the rise of gunpowder, while a new model of mathematics stimulated new financial trading systems and made it easier than ever to navigate across the world.
And navigate the Renaissance men did. Columbus discovered America, Ferdinand Magellan led an expedition to circumnavigate the globe. Even as our world shrank in size and significance when placed in the context of our new understanding of the universe, so it grew in physical terms, as new continents were found, new lands colonised, new cultures discovered whose own beliefs and understandings were added to the great intellectual firestorm raging across Europe.
Radical thinkers such as the Protestant Luther and the humanist Erasmus expounded a new way of looking at the world that owed less to blind subservience to the Catholic Church and more to the possibilities inherent in the human mind. Never before or since had there been such a coming together of art, science and philosophy.
For that matter, even many important and influential late medieval philosophers who did belong to religious orders are still virtually unknown or at least woefully understudied today, despite the labors of generations of scholars. Classical Pagan Vs. Note you can select to send to either the free. In an area ripe for revision, Andrew Kraebel challenges the accepted theory inherited from Reformation writers that medieval English Bible translations represent a proto-Protestant rejection of scholastic modes of interpretation. Striking the manifesting ideals of loyalty in English Literature reflects a strong sense of character in the tales of Beowulf, Hamlet, and King Arthur. Kretzmann, Norman, and Stump, Eleonore eds.
Painters and sculptors tried to give their works a spiritual quality. They wanted viewers to concentrate on the deep religious meaning of their paintings and sculptures. They were not concerned with making their subjects appear natural or lifelike. Medieval scholars reinstated Greek and Arabic writing from ancient civilizations into Latin, and studied their meanings. More and more scholars became familiar with the writings of the Greek philosopher Aristotle.
The scholars argued whether Aristotle teachings opposed those of the church. A field of thought called scholasticism grew out of their discussions and writings. However, during the Renaissance, another cultural break with tradition may be summed up with the word humanism. Classical texts were studied and valued on their own terms, no longer serving merely to embellish and justify Christian civilization.
Although the study of ancient literature, history, and moral philosophy sometimes degenerated into slavish imitation of the classics, it was meant to produce free and civilized human beings, people of taste and Judgment, citizens rather than priests and monks. Renaissance painters and sculptors, like Renaissance writers, wanted to portray people and nature realistically. Architects of the Middle Ages designed huge cathedrals to emphasize the majesty and grandeur aware of their own powers and dignity. In medicine and anatomy, progress was made.
Some of the most advanced Greek treatises on mathematics were translated in the 16th century, and advances made beyond the ancients included the solution of cubic equations and the innovative astronomy. In the field of technology, the invention of printing in the 1 5th century began to revolutionize the dissemination of knowledge.
The use of gunpowder transformed warfare between and Artillery proved devastatingly effective against the stone walls of castles and towns. The medieval army, led by cavalry and supported by bowmen, was gradually replaced by one made up of foot soldiers carrying portable firearms and masses of troops with pikes. All of these changes from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance changed much of Europe. People were less concerned with religious thinking, and concentrated more on understanding people and the world.
The scholars and artists emphasized the study of humanity. Scholars and artists rediscovered ancient works and gained inspiration from them. Architects began to design non-religious buildings rather than cathedrals. Painters and sculptors began to glorify people and nature in their works. More and more writers composed prose and poetry not in Latin, but in their native languages, including French and Italian. This increasing use of the vernacular opened a new literary age, and gradually brought learning and literature to the common people.
As this statement shows, religion was the main influencing social condition of the time. This is extremely present when we look at most of the artists of the time were monks.
These artists would rarely sign their name to the artworks because the art was made to honor god or kings. The artist who made the art was of little importance Limited, This is one aspect of the Middle Ages that was extremely different than the Renaissance. The next period, the Renaissance, is probably the most famous period of art in history.
The Renaissance occurred Just after the Middle For this paper I will describe the characteristics and styles of both periods, and the social conditions that influenced each period.
Feudalism was created in the middle ages with the king at the top of military, .. and cultural deficiency, numerous events helped transition Europe into an age of . Free Essay: Chapter Crisis of the Later Middle Ages What were the causes of the European society in the Middle Ages was predominately rural. characterized by both periods of decline and periods of transition into the Renaissance.
I will also compare and contrast the characteristics and styles of both periods. I will then compare and contrast specific artworks from each period of time.